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Volume-1 Issue-5, April 2013, ISSN: 2319–6386 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.

1.

Authors:

Nitin B. Bagul, Shivshankar S. Patil, Naresh R. Shinde

Paper Title:

Climate Change and Urban Road Transport

Abstract: Identify the areas within the municipality which are most vulnerable to sea level rise and to develop adaptive responses and interventions in order to maintain road functionality. Parameters modeled were traffic volume changes, travel time and volume to capacity ratio – for the main roads in the areas identified.  How vulnerability and the development of adaptive strategies to sea level rise could be addressed by municipalities.

Keywords:
Climate, road transport, vulnerability, Emme/2 model.


References:

1.        Bredica, K 2002. An introduction to road vulnerability: What has been done is done and should be done. Transport Policy, 9(2): 117–127.
2.        CSIR (Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, South Africa) 2006. Climatic future for Durban. Available online at: http://www.csir.co.za (accessed in August 2008).

3.        E Friedrich, S Timol Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering Climate change and urban road transport –a South African case study of vulnerability due to sea level riseVol 53 No 2, October 2011, Pages 14–22, Paper 732

 

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2.

Authors:

Prashant D. Pulujkar, Vaishali B. Langote

Paper Title:

Ergonomics Intervention in a Printing Press with Participative Ergonomic Approach and of ILO Ergonomic Checkpoints

Abstract: The ergonomic assessment has been carried out to recognize aspects contributing to discomfort to the workers working at Mudrankan Printing Press and identify ergonomic recommendations to reduce them. To prevent MSDs resulting from the ergonomic risk factor and bad work organization and hence to improve the productivity, safety and health the ergonomic intervention is the right choice.to meet diversifying ergonomic needs, participatory steps  reviewed are found to usually follow a good practice approach easily adjustable according to local needs. These steps are found to usually focus on low cost improvement. In this paper, we scrutinize several ergonomics issues pertaining to reduce the WMSDs among the workers, .in the propose system we introduce the participative intervention approach and use the ILO checkpoints.

Keywords:
Participatory ergonomic (P.E), Ergonomic intervention, Ergonomics risk assessment, ILO ergonomic checkpoints, low cost solution.


References:

1.        Silvia A. Pascal, Syed Naqvi, “An Investigation of Ergonomics Analysis Tools Used in Industry in the Identification of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders”, International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics (JOSE) 2008, Vol. 14, No. 2, 237–245
2.        Kazutaka Kogi, “Participatory methods effective for ergonomic workplace improvement”, Applied Ergonomics 37 (2006), 547–554

3.        Shengli Niu, “Ergonomics and occupational safety and health: An ILO perspective”, Applied Ergonomics, 41 (2010), 744-753

4.        ILO ergonomics checkpoints, second edition, International labor office, Geneva. 1996

5.        Faramarz Helali, “ Using Ergonomics Checkpoints to Support a Participatory Ergonomics Intervention in an Industrially Developing Country (IDC)—A Case Study”,  International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics (JOSE) 2009, Vol. 15, No. 3, 325–337

6.        David mijatovic,”handbook on participatory ergonomics”, center of research expertise for the prevention of the MSD’s Canada,2008

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3.

Authors:

S. R. Priyanga, AP, A. AzhaguSindhu, AP

Paper Title:

Rule Based Statistical Hybrid Machine Translation

Abstract: Language is the main form of human communication. Translation is essential for co-operation among communities that speaks different languages. Machine Translation refers to the use of computers to automate the task of translation between human languages. Machine Translation performs its operation based on the available examples, which failed to overcome certain ambiguities like mapping of multiple words, idiomatic usages, phrasal verbs, structural ambiguity thus a statistical approach to the machine translation was proposed. Systems are designed either for two particular languages (bilingual systems) or for more than a single pair of languages (multilingual systems). Bilingual systems may be designed to operate either in only one direction e.g. from Tamil into English, or in both directions. Multilingual systems are usually intended to be bidirectional; most bilingual systems are unidirectional. This system is designed as bilingual system, i.e., converting English sentence to Tamil sentence using particular rules.

Keywords:
Idiomatic usages, phrasal verbs, structural ambiguity.


References:

1.        Peter F. Brown, John Cocke, Stephen A. Della Pietra, Vincent J. Della Pietra, Frederick Jelinek, John D. Lafferty, Robert L. Mercer, and Paul S. Roossin, A Statistical Approach to Machine Translation, Computational Linguistics, 16(2), pages 79–85, June 1990.
2.        Peter F. Brown, Stephen A. Della Pietra, Vincent J. Della Pietra, and Robert L. Mercer, The Mathematics of Statistical Machine Translation: Parameter Estimation, Computational Linguistics, 19(2), pages 263–311,June 1993.

3.        Shachi Dave, Jignashu Parikh, and Pushpak Bhattacharyya, Interlingua-based English-Hindi Machine Translation and Language Divergence, Journal of Machine Translation (JMT), 16(4), pages 251–304, 2001.

4.        Harold L. Somers, Example-based Machine Translation, Machine Translation, 14, pages 113–157, 1999.

5.        Ananthakrishnan Ramanathan, Pushpak Bhattacharya, Statistical Machine Translation, pages 6-10, 2002.

 

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4.

Authors:

R. Parimala

Paper Title:

Enhanced Biclustering for Gene Expression Data

Abstract: Microarray technology is a powerful method for monitoring the expression level of thousands of genes in parallel. Using this technology, the expression levels of genes are measured. Microarray data is represented in N × M matrix. Each row indicates genes and each column indicates condition. In Gene Expression data, standard clustering algorithms are called as global clustering. In global clustering, genes are analyzed under all experimental conditions based on their expression. Biclustering is a very popular method to identify hidden co-regulation patterns among genes and to identify the local structures of genes and conditions. In existing system, Cheng and Church biclustering algorithm is presented as an alternative approach to standard clustering techniques to identify local structures and also identify subsets of genes that shows similar expression patterns across specific subsets of experimental conditions and vice versa. Clustering the microarray data is based on user defined threshold value, this affects the quality of biclusters formed. In proposed scheme, threshold value ∂ is calculated rather than user defined threshold. Biclusters are formed based on the low mean squared residues and ∂, which would improve the quality of the biclusters.

Keywords:
Microarray technology, Clustering, Biclustering, gene expression data.


References:

1.        Amos Tanay,  Roded Sharan and Ron  Shamir  (2004),“Biclustering  Algorithms: A Survey”, Handbook of Computational Molecular Biology.
2.        Anupam Chakraborty and Hitashyam Maka (2005), “Biclustering of Gene Expression Data Using Genetic Algorithm”, IEEE.

3.        Cheng Y and Church G.M (2000), “Biclustering of expression data”, Proceedings of International Conference on Intelligent System and Molecular Biology, Vol. 8, pp. 93–103.

4.        Cheng K.O, Law N.F, Siu W.E and Liew (2007), "Biclusters Visualization and Detection Using Parallel Coordinate Plots", American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings, Vol. 952, pp. 114-123.

5.        Daxin   Jiang,   Chun Tang  and Aidong   Zhang (2004),  “Cluster  Analysis for Gene Expression  Data: A Survey”, IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, Vol. 16, no. 11.

6.        Jiong Yang, Haixun Wang, Wei Wang, Philip (2003), “Enhanced Biclustering on Expression Data”, Proceedings of Third IEEE Conference on Bioinformatics and Bioengineering, pp.321-327.

7.        Nighat  Noureen  and  Muhammad  Abdul  Qadir  (2009),  “BiSim: A  Simple and Efficient Biclustering algorithm”, International Conference of Soft Computing and Pattern Recognition, IEEE.

8.        Nishchal K. VermaL, Sheela Meena, Amarjot Singh, Shruti Bajpai, Van Cui, Aditya Nagrare (2010), ” A Comparison of Biclustering Algorithms”, Proceedings of International Conference on Systems in Medicine and Biology, IEEE.

9.        Prelic A, Bleuler S, Zimmermann P, Wille A, Buhlmann P (2006), "A systematic comparison and evaluation of biclustering methods for gene expression data", Bioinformatics, Vol. 22,no. 9, pp. 1122-1129.

10.     Sara C. Madeira and Arlindo L. Oliveira (2004), “Biclustering algorithms for biological data analysis: a survey”, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Vol. 1, pp. 24-45.

11.     Wen-Hui Yang, Dao-Qing Dai and Hong Yan (2011),” Finding Correlated Biclusters from Gene Expression Data”, IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, Vol. 23, no. 4.

12.     Xiaowen Liu and Lusheng Wang (2007),” Computing the maximum similarity biclusters of gene expression data”, Bioinformatics, Vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 50–56.

 

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5.

Authors:

Karalapati Preethi, G. Anil, E. Vani

Paper Title:

Speed Control of Induction Motor Using Eleven Levels Multilevel Inverter

Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to control the speed of an induction motor by using seven level diode clamped multilevel inverter and to compare the speed control of induction motor using seven level, nine level and eleven level multilevel inverters individually. To obtain high quality sinusoidal output voltage with reduced harmonics. The proposed Scheme for diode clamped multilevel inverter is multicarrier SPWM control. Stator voltage control method is used to control the speed of Induction Motor. As the motor torque is proportional to the square of the supply voltage, a reduction in supply voltage reduce the motor torque and therefore the speed of the drive. The proposed system is an effective replacement for the conventional method which has high switching losses, as a result a poor drive performance. The simulation result portrays the effective control in the motor speed and an enhanced drive performance through reduction in total harmonic distortion (THD).

Keywords:
Diode clamped multilevel inverter; induction motor; THD.


References:

1.        S. Malik and D. Kluge, “ACS 7000 world’s first standard ac drive for Medium-voltage applications,” ABB Rev., no. 2, pp. 4–11, 2006.
2.        H. Natchpong, Y. Kondo, and H. Akagi,  “Five-level diode clamped PWM converters connected back-to-back for motor drives,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 1268–1276, Jul./Aug. 2008.

3.        T. S.Key and J. S. Lai, “IEEE and international  harmonic  standards impact  on  power  electronic  equipment  design,”  in  Conf.  Rec.  IEEE IECON, Nov.2005, vol. 2, pp. 430–436.

4.        F. DeWinter, N. Zargari, S. Rizzo, and X. Yuan, “Medium voltage drives: Are isolation transformers required?,” in Conf. Rec. IEEE IAS Petroleum Chem. Ind. Conf., 2002, pp. 191–196.

5.        B.Wu, High-Power Converters and AC Drives.  Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2006.

6.        Nabae, I. Takahashi, and H. Akagi, “A new neutral-point-clamped PWM inverter,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. IA-17, no. 5,  pp. 518–523,Sep.2008.

7.        L.M.Tolbert,F.Z.Peng,andT. G. Habetler, “Multilevel converters for large electric drives,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 36–44,Jan./Feb. 2003.

 

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6.

Authors:

Kadav Suchita, Gaikwad Madhuri, Dugade Pooja

Paper Title:

Dynamic Business Solution for Production Management

Abstract: In present system, most of functions are performed physically which consist of quite a lot of risks as far as material handling and production system department is concern. In this issue we are highlighting on providing automation to this field. With the help of integration of mechanical engineering and Information Technology we are trying to accomplish our aspiration. We have used mechanical units such as Conveyor System, RFID tags[10] and other hardware system to construct our total embedded system. As far as software and programming part is concern we employed state-of-art technology so that it can easily right to use and reclaim essential information. The main concern over here is to provide a flawless combination to whole system. By positive tests and experiments we can guarantee that automation is the legitimate and new option to the current situation. In conclusion we will defend the overall contribution of system to boost the esteem and edge of the industry. This project is mainly focusing on providing automation to overall process as possible. Another factor which should take into account is that if you recruiting some people to work then for efficient functionality it mandatory that all employees should pass through complete training. As far as this issue is concern experts suggest some guidelines for the same. Such as proper work practices, equipment, and controls- can help reduce workplaces accidents involving the moving, handling, and storing of materials.

Keywords:
Security, Conveyor system, RFID, DC motor, Embedded system, Datasheets.


References:

1.        www.webopedia.com/terme/erp.html
2.        Ang J., Dhillon, R., “The dynamic stress of conveyor belt system during starting and stopping”, 1994, pp.866-71, vol. 26.

3.        Bahake, “Dimensioning and application of belt conveyors with intermediate drive”, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 1999, pp.82231.      

4.        Shah R. and Rabaey J., “Energy aware routing for low energy ad hoc sensor networks,” in Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2002. WCNC2002, vol.1, pp. 350–355, Mar 2002 IEEE.

5.        www.microsoft.com

6.        Wang L. and Xiao Y., “A survey of energy-efficient scheduling mechanisms in sensor networks,” Mob. Netw. Appl., vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 723–740, 2006.

7.        “Castalia a simulator for wireless sensor networks,” http://castalia.npc.nicta.com.au/pdfs/Castalia User Manual.pdf.

8.        Interfacing serial port (Rs232) with 8051 Microcontroller

http://www.engineersgarage.com/microcontroller/8051project/interface-serialport-RS232-AT89C51-circuit.

9.        24c512 datasheets and application notes, data sheets, circuits http://www.datasheets.org.uk/24C512*-datasheet.html

10.     RFID tagging http://whatis.techtarget.com/glossary/Computer-Science

 

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7.

Authors:

A. KrishnaKumar, D. Amrita, N. Swathi Priya

Paper Title:

Mining Association Rules between Sets of Items in Large Databases

Abstract: In Data Mining, the usefulness of association rules is strongly limited by the huge amount of delivered rules. To overcome this drawback, several methods were proposed in the literature such as item set concise representations, redundancy reduction, and post processing. However, being generally based on statistical information, most of these methods do not guarantee that the extracted rules are interesting for the user. Thus, it is crucial to help the decision-maker with an efficient post processing step in order to reduce the number of rules. This paper proposes a new interactive approach to prune and filter discovered rules. First, we propose to use ontologies in order to improve the integration of user knowledge in the post processing task. Second, we propose the Rule Schema formalism extending the specification language proposed by Liu et al. for user expectations. Furthermore, an interactive framework is designed to assist the user throughout the analyzing task. Applying our new approach over voluminous sets of rules, we were able, by integrating domain expert knowledge in the post processing step, to reduce the number of rules to several dozens or less. Moreover, the quality of the filtered rules was validated by the domain expert at various points in the interactive process.

Keywords:
Clustering, classification, and association rules, interactive data exploration and discovery, knowledge management applications.


References:

1.        R. Agrawal, T. Imielinski, and A. Swami, “Mining Association Rules between Sets of Items in Large Databases,” Proc. ACM SIGMOD, pp. 207-216, 1993.
2.        U.M. Fayyad, G. Piatetsky-Shapiro, P. Smyth, and R. Uthurusamy, Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. AAAI/MIT Press, 1996.

3.        A. Silberschatz and A. Tuzhilin, “What Makes Patterns Interesting in Knowledge Discovery Systems,” IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng. vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 970-974, Dec. 1996.

4.        M.J. Zaki and M. Ogihara, “Theoretical Foundations of Association Rules,” Proc. Workshop Research Issues in Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery (DMKD ’98), pp. 1-8, June 1998.

5.        D. Burdick, M. Calimlim, J. Flannick, J. Gehrke, and T. Yiu, “Mafia: A Maximal Frequent Itemset Algorithm,” IEEE Trans.Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 1490-1504, Nov. 2005.

6.        J. Li, “On Optimal Rule Discovery,” IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 460-471, Apr. 2006.

7.        M.J. Zaki, “Generating Non-Redundant Association Rules,” Proc. Int’l Conf. Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, pp. 34-43, 2000.

8.        E. Baralis and G. Psaila, “Designing Templates for Mining Association Rules,” J. Intelligent Information Systems, vol. 9, pp. 7-32, 1997.

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8.

Authors:

Rahul U. Kale, Pavan M. Ingale, Rameshwar T. Murade, Sarfaraz S. Sayyad

Paper Title:

Comparison of Quality Power Spectrum Estimation (Bartlett, Welch, Blackman & Tukey) Methods

Abstract: To convert the analog signals into samples of digital signals is called the DSP. In this paper we study the power spectrum estimation of DSP. There is a fluctuation on DSP signals thermal noise in resistors & electronic devices. There are two methods for calculating PSE is parametric & non parametric methods. In Nonparametric (classical) methods – begin by estimating the autocorrelation sequence from a given data. Limitations of non parametric methods are we require inherent assumptions for autocorrelation estimate. Parametric method we assume that signal is output of a system having white noise as an input. We model the system and get its parameters i.e. coloring filter coefficients and predict the power spectrum. Here we compare the Yule-Walker method & Burg method   for Power spectrum estimation. In this paper we see that parametric methods do not need these assumptions.

Keywords:
Periodogram, Bartlett method, Welch method Blackman & Tukey method.


References:

1.        Non-Parametric Power Spectrum Estimation Methods SYDE 770 Image Processing Course Project Prof E. Jernigan Eric Hui – 97142203 Thursday, December 12,  2002.
2.        Digital Signal Processing: Principles, Algorithms & Applications- J.G.Proakis & D.G.Manolokis, 4th ed., PHI.

3.        Discrete Time signal processing - Alan V Oppenheim & Ronald W Schaffer, PHI.

4.        DSP – A Pratical Approach – Emmanuel C.Ifeacher, Barrie. W. Jervis, 2 ed., Pearson Education.

5.        Modern spectral Estimation: Theory & Application – S. M.Kay, 1988, PHI.

6.        Digital Signal Processing – S.Salivahanan, A.Vallavaraj, C.Gnanapriya, 2000, TMH.

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9.

Authors:

Navnath D. Kale, Megha M. Nalgirkar

Paper Title:

An Ample-Range Survey on Recall-Based Graphical Password Authentication Based On Multi-Line Grid and Attack Patterns

Abstract: A password is a secret word or combination of alphabets used for user authentication to establish self identity. This password should be kept secret from those not allowed to access. Now-a-days data security is the most describing problem. Token based authentication like Smart card, Biometric based authentication like iris, fingerprint, facial, Knowledge based authentication like text based and Image based password. Graphical password are more secure than the text password because they are easy to remember and hard to crack. In this paper we will study survey of different types of Recall-based graphical user authentication algorithm based on usability attributes and attack pattern those we found and also different factors affecting to it. We will also implement multi-line grid algorithm.

Keywords:
Graphical Password, Attack Pattern, User authentication, pure recall-based algorithm, cued recall-based algorithm, multi-line grid algorithm.
  

References:

1.        A.H. Lashkari, Abdullah Gani: A new algorithm on graphical user authentication based on multi-line grids. A full length research paper. 18 Dec 2010.
2.        A..H. Lashkari, Samneh Farmand: A wide survey on Recall-Based Graphical User Authentication algorithm based on ISO and attack Patterns , IJCSIS Vol. 6, no. 3, 2009.

3.        Ahmet ED, Nasir M, Jean-Camille B (2007). Modeling user choice in the passpoints graphical password scheme, Symposium on usable privacy and security. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. ACM,, 20-28; July.

4.        Di Lin, Paul Dunphy, Patrick Olivier and Jeff Yan, “Graphical Passwords & Qualitative Spatial Relations”, Proceedings of the 3rd symposium on Usable privacy and security. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ACM. 161-162 ; July 2007.

5.        S. Chiasson. Usable Authentication and Click-Based Graphical Passwords. PhD thesis, Carleton University, Ottawa,

6.        Greg E. Blonder , Graphical Password U.S. Patent No. 5559961, 1996.

7.        Di L, Paul D, Patrick O, Jeff Y (2007). Graphical Passwords and Qualitative Spatial Relations, Proceedings of the 3rd symposium on Usable privacy and security. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ACM, 161- 162; July.

 

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10.

Authors:

Priyadharshini S, Gayathri K, Priyanka S, Eswari K

Paper Title:

Image Denoising Based On Adaptive Wavelet Multiscale Thresholding Method

Abstract: This paper introduces a new technique called adaptive wavelet thresholding and wavelet packet transform to denoised the image based on generalized Gaussian distribution.It chooses an adaptive threshold value which is level and subband dependent based on analyzing the subband coefficients.Experimental results, on different test images under different noise intensity conditions, shows proposed algorithm, called OLI-Shrink, yields better peak signal noise ratio with superior visual image quality measured by universal image quality index compared to standard denoising methods. It also performs some of wavelet-based denoising techniques.wavelet transform enable us to represent image with high degree of scarcity.wavelet transform based denoising technique are of greater interest because of their fourier and other spatial domain methods.

Keywords:
Adaptive wavelet thresholding, OLI Shrink, wavelet packet transform (WPT), optimal wavelet basis (OWB), subband weighting function (SWF)
.

References:

1.        J. Saeedi and M. H. Moradi, “A new wavelet based fuzzy single and multichannel image denoising,” Image Vis. Comput., vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 1611–1623, Dec. 2010.
2.        X. Y. Wang, H. Y. Yang, and Z. K. Fu, “A new wavelet-based image denoising  using  undecimated  discrete wavelet  transform  and  least squares support vector machine,”  Expert Syst. Appl., vol. 37, no. 10, pp. 7040–7049, 2010.
3.        J. Saeedi and M. H. Moradi, “A new wavelet-based fuzzy single and multichannel image denoising,” Image Vis. Comput., vol. 28, no. 12,pp. 1611–1623, Dec. 2010.
4.        Z. He, X. You, and Y. Yuan, “Texture image retrieval  based on non-tensor product wavelet filter banks,” Signal Process., vol. 89, no. 8, pp. 1501–1510, 2009.
5.        M. Nasri and H. Nezamabadiour,  “Image denoising  in the waveledomain using a new adaptive thresholding function,” Neurocomputing,vol. 72, nos. 4–6, pp. 1012–1025, 2009.
6.        G. Y. Chen, T. D. Bui, and A. Image denoising with neighbour dependency and customized wavelet   and th  reshold,” Pattern Recognit., vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 115–124, Jan. 2005.
7.        K. Q. Huang, Z. Y. Wu, G. S. K. Fung, and F. H. Y. Chan, “Color image denoising with wavelet thresholding based on human visual system model,” Signal Process.: Image Commun., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 115–127, 2005.
8.        C. He, J. Dong, Y. F. Zhang, and S. C. Ahalt, “Object tracking using the Gabor wavelet transform and the golden section algorithm,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom., vol. 2. Jul. 2001, pp. 1671–1676.
9.        Y. Han and P. Shi, “An adaptive level-selecting wavelet transform for texture defect detection,” Image Vis. Comput., vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 1239– 12481, 2007.
10.     Z. He, X. You, and Y. Yuan, “Texture image retrieval based on nontensor product wavelet filter banks,” Signal Process., vol. 89, no. 8, pp. 1501–1510, 2009.

 

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11.

Authors:

B. Bala Subbanna

Paper Title:

Clear View on Optical Detectors in Ultravoilet Visible and Infrared Portions of the Electromagnetic Spectrum in a Light Wave Communication

Abstract: Many optical fiber communication applications require the use of optical radiation detectors. Examples are optical radar, monitoring of laser power levels for materials processing, and laser metrology. There are different types of optical fiber detectors are available, these optical fiber detectors are covering the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Optical detectors convert incoming optical energy into electrical signals. Thee are two main types of optical fiber detectors are available, such as photon detectors and thermal detectors. Photon detectors produce one electron for each incoming photon of optical energy. The electron is then detected by the electronic circuitry. Thermal detectors convert the optical energy to heat energy, which then generates an electrical signal.. The incident light changes the characteristics of the detector and changes the current flowing in the circuit. The output signal is then the change in voltage drop across the load resistor. In this article, I am describing Fiber optic communication, Electromagnetic spectrum, optical detectors and their important characteristics in photonic applications.

Keywords:
Optical detectors readout concepts, Thermal detectors.


References:

1.        Optical fiber telecommunication  111a   by   IVAN P. KAMINOW Lucent Technologies, Bell Laboratories , Holmdel, New Jersey and  THOMAS L. KOCH, Lucent Technologies. Bell Laboratories, Holmdel. New Jersey
2.        G. N. Gol'tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, "Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).

3.        S. Somani, S. Kasapi, K. Wilsher, W. Lo, R. Sobolewski, and G. Gol'tsman, "New photon detector for device analysis: Superconducting single-photon detector based on a hot electron effect," J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 19, 2766-9 (2001).

4.        M. A. Albota and E. Dauler, "Single photon detection of degenerate photon pairs at 1.55 µm from a periodically poled lithium niobate parametric downconverter," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1417-1432 (2004).

5.        Handbook of optical constants of solids, edited by  Edward D. Palik, Academic Press, (1985).

6.        Handbook of optical constants of solids III, edited by Edward D. Palik, Academic Press, (1998).

7.        D. L. Fried, “Adaptive optics wave function reconstruction and phase unwrapping when branch points are present,” Optics Communications, vol. 200, no. 1–6, pp. 43–72, 2001

 

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12.

Authors:

Sheetal S. Jadhav, Navnath D. Kale

Paper Title:

Motion Capture System Based On Color and Edge Distribution

Abstract: This paper describes a robust tracking algorithm for real-time, video based motion capture systems. Since conventional video based motion capture systems use many video cameras and take a long time to deal with many video images, they cannot generate motion data in real time. On the other hand, the prototype system proposed in this paper uses a few video cameras, up to two, it employs a very simple motion-tracking method based on object color and edge distributions, and it takes video images of the person, e.g., x, y position of the hand, feet and head, and then it generates motion data of such body parts in real time. Especially using two video cameras, it generates 3D motion data in real time.  This paper mainly describes its aspects as a real-time motion capture system for the tip parts of the human body, i.e., the hands, feet and head, and validates its usefulness by showing its application examples.

Keywords:
Background subtraction; camera; frame; moving objects detection.


References:

1.        D. M. Gravrila, "The visual analysis of human movement: A survey", CWR, vol. 73, pp. 82-98,1999
2.        C. Wren, A. Azarbayejani, T. Darrel, and A. Pentland, "Pfinder: Real-time  tracking of the human body", IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. and Machine  Intel., vol. 9, no. 7, pp.

3.        D. Snow, P. Viola, and R. Zabih, "Exact voxel occupancy with graph cuts", in Proc. EEE CVPR, 2000

4.        K. M. Cheung, T. Kanade, J. Y. Bouguet, and M. Holler, "A real-time      system for robust 3D voxel reconstruction of human motions", in Proc.  IEEE CVPR, 2000

5.        S. We&, and C.-E. Liedtke, "Hierarchical 3D pose estimation for articulated human body models from a sequence of volume data", Robot Vision 2001, LNCS 1998,

6.        Jason Luck, Dan Small, and Charles Q.Little, "Real-time tracking of articulated human models using a 3D shapefrom- silhouette method", Robot Vision 2001, LNCS 1998,

7.        Okada, Y. and Tanaka, Y.: IntelligentBox: A Constructive Visual Sohare Development System for Interactive 3D Graphic Applications, Proc. of Computer Animation '95, IEEE Computer Society Press,     pp.l14-125,1995.

8.        Okada, Y. and Tanaka, Y.: Collaborative Environments of IntelligentBox for Distributed 3D Graphics Applications,The Visual Computer, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 140-152, 1998.

9.        Okada, Y. and Tanaka, Y.: Virtual Input Devices based on Motion Capture and Collision Detection, Computer Animation 1999, pp. 201-209, 1999.

 

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13.

Authors:

B. N. Kartheek, P. S. D. M. Chandana, S. Niveditha

Paper Title:

An Optimized Code for Space Vector PWM for A Two Level Voltage Source Inverter

Abstract: A Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Method (SVPWM) is an advanced intense computational modulation method with several advantages such as less harmonic content relative to other PWM modulations, effective utilization of dc bus, and complete digital implementation by a single chip microprocessor. Due to the advantages SVM has increasing applications in power converters and motor control. 2-level inverter is the first model developed using this technique. In this paper, we implement SVPWM technique for 2-level inverters in the simplest way possible and optimized memory usage by processor using programmable pulse generator.

Keywords:
Programmable Pulse Generator, SIMULINK, SVPWM, Two-level inverter.


References:

1.        Simulation and implementation of 2-level & 3-level inverters by Mat lab By “ABD ALMULA G.M. GEREEL”
2.        A Novel Voltage Modulation Technique of the Space Vector PWM  By “JOOHN-SHEOK KIM & SEUNG-KI SUL”

3.        Programmable Laboratory Inverter And Space Vector PWM By “ING PAVEL GAJDUSEK”

4.        A PWM Scheme for a 3-level inverter cascading two 2-level inverters By “V.T SOMASEKHAR, GOPAKUMAR, M.R.BAUU, K.K MOHAPATRA & L.UMANAND”
5.        Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation of 3-level Inverter Extending Operation Into Over modulated Region By “ SUBRATA K.MONDAL,BIMAL K.BOSE,VALENTIN OLESCHUK 
6.        Power electronics By “P.S BIMBRA” Power electronics By” RASHID

 

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14.

Authors:

R. A. Jain, Hrushikesh B. Surve, Amit A. Sonar, Swpanil N. Salunke

Paper Title:

Secret Communication Through Image and Audio For Defence

Abstract: Steganography is an art of sending hidden data or secret messages over a public channel so that a third party cannot detect the presence of the secret messages. The goal of steganography is different from classical encryption, which seeks to conceal the content of secret messages; steganography is about hiding the very existence of the secret messages. In this paper we mainly discuss combination of steganographic methods.

Keywords:
Goal of steganography is different from classical encryption.


References:

1.        Pramatha Nath Basu& Tanmay Bhowmik 2010. International Conference on Recent Trends in Information, Telecommunication and Computing:  On Embedding of Text in Audio – A case of Steganography.
2.        R SRIDEVI, DR. A DAMODARAM, “EFFICIENT METHOD OF AUDIO STEGANOGRAPHY BY MODIFIED LSB ALGORITHM AND STRONG ENCRYPTION KEY WITH ENHANCED SECURITY”,Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology.

3.        Jayaram P, Ranganatha H R, Anupama H,”INFORMATION HIDING USING AUDIOSTEGANOGRAPHY-A SURVEY.” The InternationalJournal of Multimedia & Its Applications (IJMA) Vol.3, No.3,August2011.

4.        Johnson, Neil F. and Stefan Katzenbeisser. “A Survey of Steganographic Techniques”, In Information Hiding: Techniques for Steganography and Digital Watermarking. Boston, Artech House. 43-78. 2000.

5.        Mohammad Pooyan, Ahmed Delforouzi, “LSB-based Audio Steganography Method Based on Lifting Wavelet Transform”,International Symposium on Signal Processing and Information Technology, IEEE, 2007.

 

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15.

Authors:

M. Swarnalatha, G. devadas,   K. sunil

Paper Title:

A Switched-Capacitor Inverter Using Series/ Parallel Conversion with Inductive Load

Abstract: A novel switched-capacitor inverter is proposed. The proposed inverter outputs larger voltage than the input voltage by switching the capacitors in series and in parallel. The maximum output voltage is determined by the number of the capacitors. The proposed inverter, which does not need any inductors, can be smaller than a conventional two-stage unit which consists of a boost converter and an inverter bridge. Its output harmonics are reduced compared to a conventional voltage source single phase full bridge inverter. In this paper, the circuit configuration, the theoretical operation, the simulation results with MATLAB/ SIMULINK, and the experimental results are shown. The experimental results accorded with the theoretical calculation and the simulation results.

Keywords:
Charge pump, multicarrier PWM, multilevel inverter, switched capacitor (SC).


References:

1.        H. Liu, L. M. Tolbert, S. Khomfoi, B. Ozpineci, and Z. Du, “Hybrid cascaded multilevel inverter with PWM control method,” in Proc. IEEE Power Electron. Spec. Conf., Jun. 2008, pp. 162–166.
2.        A. Emadi, S. S. Williamson, and A. Khaligh, “Power electronics intensive solutions for advanced electric, hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicular power systems,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 21,    no. 3, pp. 567–577, May 2006.

3.        L. G. Franquelo, J. Rodriguez, J. I. Leon, S. Kouro, R. Portillo, and M. A. M. Prats, “The age of multilevel converters arrives,” IEEE Ind. Electron. Mag., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 28–39, Jun. 2008.

4.        Y. Hinago and H. Koizumi, “A single phase multilevel inverter using switched series/parallel DC voltage sources,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2643–2650, Aug. 2010.

5.        S. Chandrasekaran and L. U. Gokdere, “Integrated magnetics for interleaved DC–DC boost converter for fuel cell powered vehicles,” in Proc. IEEE Power Electron.Spec. Conf., Jun. 2004, pp. 356–361.

6.        Y. Hinago and H. Koizumi, “A switched-capacitor inverter using series/ parallel conversion,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Syst., May/Jun. 2010, pp. 3188–3191.

7.        J. A. Starzyk, Y. Jan, and F. Qiu, “A dc–dc charge pump design based on voltage doublers,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Fundam. Theory Appl., vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 350–359, Mar. 2001.

8.        M. R. Hoque, T. Ahmad, T. R. McNutt, H. A. Mantooth, and M. M. Mojarradi, “A technique to increase the efficiency of high-voltage charge pumps,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, Exp. Briefs, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 364–368, May 2006.

9.        O. C.Mak and A. Ioinovici, “Switched-capacitor inverter with high power density and enhanced regulation capability,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Fundam. Theory Appl., vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 336–347, Apr. 1998.

10.     B. Axelrod, Y. Berkovich, and A. Ioinovici, “A cascade boost-switchedcapacitor- converter-two level inverter with an optimized multilevel output waveform,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Reg. Papers, vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 2763–2770, Dec. 2005.

11.     J. I. Rodriguez and S. B. Leeb, “A multilevel inverter topology for inductively coupled power transfer,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 1607–1617, Nov. 2006.

12.     X. Kou, K. A. Corzine, and Y. L. Familiant, “A unique fault-tolerant design for flying capacitor multilevel inverter,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 979–987, Jul. 2004

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16.

Authors:

Jyoti Kataria, Pawan Kumar, Tilak Raj

Paper Title:

A Study and Survey of OFDM Versus COFDM

Abstract: Modern wireless communications system demands higher data rate environment and reliable transmission. OFDM which is suitable for high data rate transmission at reasonable complexity in wireless channels; combined with channel coding scheme for improving reliability of system called COFDM. Coding scheme can be chosen for any system which satisfies requirements of high data rate as well as good error capability and according to complexity, suitable delay and desired coding gain for system. The aim of this paper to making literature comparison of COFDM with OFDM and study shows that COFDM outperforms than OFDM with respect to reliable transmission, fading/noisy environment, BER performance, bandwidth efficiency.

Keywords:
COFDM, OFDM, Block Code & BER.


References:

1.        William Y. Zou and Yiyan Wu, “COFDM: an overview”, IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, vol.41, no.1, pp. 1-8, March 1995.
2.        Neil Weste and David J. Skellern, “VLSI for OFDM”, IEEE Magazine on Communications, pp. 127-131, October 1998.

3.        W. A. C. Fernando, R. M. A. P. Rajatheva and K. M. Ahmed, “Performance of Coded OFDM with higher modulation schemes”, IEEE International Conference on Communication Technology, vol. 2, pp. 1-5, 1998.

4.        Scott Lee Linfoot and Robert Simon Sherratt, “A study of COFDM in a terrestrial multi-path environment”, IEEE EUROCOMM on Information Systems for Enhanced Public Safety and Security. IEEE/AFCEA, pp. 388-391, 2000.

5.        Lang Lin, Cimini Leonard J. and Chuang Justin C. I., “Comparison of convolutional and turbo codes    for OFDM with antenna diversity in high-bit-rate wireless applications”, IEEE Journal on   Communications, vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 277-279, 2000.

6.        Bonghyunk Park, Jaeho Lee, Haewon Jung, Seongsu Park, and Hyeong Ho Lee, “Simulation results for FEC in 802.16 OFDM system”, Report by IEEE 802.16 Broadband wireless access working group,   IEEE 802.16abc-01/52, Nov 2001.

7.        William Stalings, “Wireless Communications and Networking”, Pearson Education, Second Edition, 2002.

8.        Athinarayanan Vallavaraj, Brian G Stewart, David K Harrison and Francis G McIntosh, “The effects    of convolution coding on BER performance of companded OFDM signals”, International Conference on Communication, Computer & Power, pp. 201-204, Feb. 2005.

9.        A. R. Zolghadr-e-asli and S. Izadpanah, “Performance evaluation of several well-known channela coding in OFDM system”, Iranian Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, vol.5, no.2, 2006.

10.     Jae-Kwon Lee, Jeong-Sang Park and Jin-Up Kim, “A  convolution coding scheme for PAR reduction  in WLAN-OFDM system”, IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Pervasive Computing, pp. 98-     100, 2007.

11.     Robin Hoel, “FEC implementation”, Texas   Instruments, Design note DN504, 2007.

12.     Dulal Haque, Rubaiyat Yasmin, Shaikh Enayat Ullah and M.A.F.M. Rashidual Hasan, “Performance evaluation of a concatenated interleaved FEC scheme based OFDM system”, Asian Journal of Information Technology, pp. 277-280, 2008.

13.     Ahmed Sghaier, Shawki Areibi and Bob Dony, “A pipelined implementation of OFDM transmission on reconfigurable platforms”, IEEE Canadian conference  on Electrical and Computer Engineering, pp. 801-804, May 2008.

14.     S. C. Thompson, A. U. Ahmed, J. G. Proakis, J. R. Zeilder, M. J. Gelie, “Constant envelope OFDM”, IEEE Transactions on Communications, v 56, n 8, p 1300-12, Aug. 2008.

15.     Shraddha Bansal and Raksha Upadhyay, “Performance improvement of Wi-Max IEEE 802.16e in   presence of different FEC codes”, IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence, Communications System and Networks, pp. 226-229, 2009

16.     S. B Weinstein and P.M. Ebert, “Data Transmission by Frequency Division Multiplexing Using the Discrete Fourier Transform”, IEEE Transactions on Communication Technology”, vol. com-19, pp. 628-634, October 1971.

 

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17.

Authors:

M. Saravanan, T. Arokia Arun, M. Krishnakumar, C. Karthik, S. Ponnusamy

Paper Title:

A Protocol to Increase the Lifetime for Wireless Sensor Network

Abstract: The applications of the sensor network require consistent coverage of the region in which they are deployed over the course of the network lifetime. The sensor networks may be deployed randomly, node distribution and data redundancy may be lower than others. The sensors in the sparsest regions should not be more considered for increasing the network lifetime. The densely deployed sensor regions should be considered more to route the traffic of other nodes in the network. Here by we  introduce the protocol.Here by we introduce the protocol called DAPR which is used for sensor selection and route discovery with the goal of minimizing the use of sensors in sparsely covered areas.

Keywords:
Applications of the sensor network, distribution and data redundancy.   


References:

1.        M. Bhardwaj and A. Chandrakasan, “Bounding the Lifetime of SensorNetworks Via Optimal Role Assignments,” in Proceedings of the Twenty First International Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer andCommunications Societies (INFOCOM), 2002.
2.        M. Perillo and W. Heinzelman, “Simple Approaches for ProvidingApplication QoS Trhough Intelligent Sensor Management,” Elsevier AdHoc Networks Journal, vol. 1, no. 2-3, pp. 235–246, 2003.

3.        A. Cerpa and D. Estrin, “ASCENT: Adaptive Self-Configuring sEnsorNetworks Topologies,” in Proceedings of the Twenty First International Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and CommunicationsSocieties (INFOCOM), 2002.

4.        B. Chen, K. Jamieson, H. Balakrishnan, and R. Morris, “Span: Anenergy-efficient coordination algorithm for topology maintenance in adhoc wireless networks,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, 2000.

5.        Y. Xu, J. Heidemann, and D. Estrin, Geography-informed Energy

6.        F. Ye, G. Zhong, J. Cheng, S. Lu, and L. Zhang, “PEAS: A Robust Energy Conserving Protocol for Long-lived Sensor Networks,” in Pro- ceedings of the Twenty Third International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, 2003.

7.        R. Iyer and L. Kleinrock, “QoS Control For Sensor Networks,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications, 2003.

8.        T. Yan, T. He, and J. A. Stankovic, “Differentiated Surveillance for Sensor Networks,” in Proceedings of Sensys, 2003.

9.        D. Tian and N. Georganas, “A Node Scheduling Scheme for Energy Conservation in Large Wireless Sensor Networks,” Wireless Commu- nications and Mobile Computing Journal, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 271–290, March 2003.

10.     X. Wang, G. Xing, Y. Zhang, C. Lu, R. Pless, , and C. Gill, “Integrated Coverage and Connectivity Configuration in Wireless Sensor Networks,” in Proceedings of Sensys, 2003

 

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18.

Authors:

Kanika Jindal, Renu, V. K. Pandey

Paper Title:

Design of Conditional Data Mapping Flip-Flop for Low Power Applications

Abstract: Power consumption is a major bottleneck of system performance and it is listed as one of the top three challenges in International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductor 2008. In practice, a large portion of the on chip power is consumed by the clock system which is made of the clock distribution network and flip-flops. In this paper, various design techniques for a low power clocking system are surveyed. Among them minimizing a number of clocked transistor is an effective way to reduce capacity of the clock load. To approach this, we propose a conditional data mapping technique which reduces the number of local clocked transistors. A 24% reduction of clock driving power is achieved.

Keywords:
Flip Flop, Low Power, CMOS Circuit.


References:

1.        H. Kawaguchi and T. Sakurai, “A reduced clock-swing flip-flop (RCSFF) for 63% power reduction,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 807–811, May 1998.
2.        A. Chandrakasan, W. Bowhill, and F. Fox, Design of High-Performance Microprocessor Circuits, 1st ed. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press,2001.

3.        G. Gerosa, “A 2.2W, 80 MHz superscalar RISC microprocessor,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 1440–1454, Dec. 1994.

4.        B. Nikolic, V. G. Oklobzija, V. Stojanovic, W. Jia, J. K. Chiu, and M.M. Leung, “Improved sense-amplifier-based flip-flop: Design and measurements,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 876–883, Jun. 2000.

5.        S. D. Naffziger, G. Colon-Bonet, T. Fischer, R. Riedlinger, T. J.Sullivan, and T. Grutkowski, “The implementation of the Itanium 2 microprocessor,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 37, no. 11, pp.1448–1460, Nov. 2002.

6.        J. Tschanz, S. Narendra, Z. P. Chen, S. Borkar,M. Sachdev, and V. De, “Comparative delay and energy of single edge-triggered & dual edgetriggered pulsed flip-flops for high-performance microprocessors,” in Proc. ISPLED, Huntington Beach, CA, Aug. 2001, pp. 207–212.

7.        P. Zhao, J. McNeely, P. Golconda, M. A. Bayoumi, W. D. Kuang, and B. Barcenas, “Low power clock branch sharing double-edge triggered flip-flop,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 338–345, Mar. 2007.

8.        C. L. Kim and S. Kang, “A low-swing clock double edge-triggered flip-flop,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 648–652, May 2002.

9.        P. Zhao, J. McNeely, S.Venigalla, G. P.Kumar,M. Bayoumi, N.Wang, and L. Downey, “Clocked-pseudo-NMOS flip-flops for level conversion in dual supply systems,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr.(VLSI) Syst., to be published.

10.     P. Zhao, T. Darwish, and M. Bayoumi, “High-performance and lowpower conditional discharge flip-flop,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst., vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 477–484, May 2004.

11.     B. Kong, S. Kim, and Y. Jun, “Conditional-capture flip-flop for statistical power reduction,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 1263–1271, Aug. 2001.

12.     H. Partovi, R. Burd, U. Salim, F.Weber, L. DiGregorio, and D. Draper,“Flow-through latch and edge-triggered flip-flop hybrid elements,” in ISSCC Dig., Feb. 1996, pp. 138–139.

13.     F. Klass, C. Amir, A. Das, K. Aingaran, C. Truong, R.Wang, A. Mehta, R. Heald, and G. Yee, “Semi-dynamic and dynamic flip-flops with embedded logic,” in Symp. VLSI Circuits, Dig. Tech. Papers, Jun. 1998, pp. 108–109.

14.     D. Markovic, B. Nikolic, and R. Brodersen, “Analysis and design of low-energy flip-flops,” in Proc. Int. Symp. Low Power Electron. Des., Huntington Beach, CA, Aug. 2001, pp. 52–55.

15.     J. Tschanz, Y. Ye, L. Wei, V. Govindarajulu, N. Borkar, S. Burns, T. Karnik, S. Borkar, and V. De, “Design optimizations of a high performance microprocessor using combinations of dual-Vt allocation and transistor sizing,” in IEEE Symp. VLSI Circuits, Dig. Tech. Papers, Jun. 2002, pp. 218–219.
16.     J. Rabaey, A. Chandrakasan, and B. Nikolic, Digital Integrated Circuits. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2003.
17.     Shigematsu, S. Mutoh, Y. Matsuya, Y. Tanabe, and J. Yamada, “A 1-V high-speed MTCMOS circuit scheme for power-down application circuits,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 861–869, Jun. 1997.

18.     T. Sakurai, “Low –power CMOS design through Vth control and lowswing circuits,” in Proc. ISLPED, 1997, pp. 1–6.

 

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19.

Authors:

Pooja Bhor, Rupali Gargote, Rupali Vhorkate, R. U. Yawle, V. K. Bairagi

Paper Title:

A No Reference Image Blur Detection Using Cumulative probability Blur Detection (CPBD) Metric

Abstract: This work presents a perceptual-based no-reference objective image sharpness/blurriness metric by integrating the concept of cumulative probability blur detection with the just noticeable blur into a probability summation model. Unlike existing objective no-reference image sharpness / blurriness metrics, the proposed metric is able to predict the relative amount of blurriness in images with different content. Results are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed perceptual-based sharpness metric. The blur perception information at each edge is then pooled over the entire image to obtain a final quality score by evaluating the cumulative probability of blur detection (CPBD) metric. Higher metric value represent sharper image. Images having small metric value denote blurred  and  noisy  images .The main purpose of CPBD metric is in TELEMEDICINE and Image quality Measure.

Keywords:
Probability, no-reference, blur detection, sharp images, noisy images.


References:

1.        Z . WANG AND A. C. BOVIK, MODERN IMAGE QUALITY ASSESSMENT, SYNTHESIS LECTURES ON IMAGE, VIDEO & MULTIMEDIA PROCESSINGMORGAN & CLAYPOOL PUBLISHERS, 2006.
2.        Ahmet M.Eskicioglu and Paul S.Fisher, “ Image Quality Measure”, IEEE TRANSACTION ON COMMUNICATIONS VOL 43, NO.12. DECEMBER 1995.

3.        Z. Wang, G. Wu, H. R. Sheikh, E. P. Simoncelli, E. Yang, and A. C. Bovik, “Quality-aware images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1680–1689, Jun. 2006.

4.        Jing Zhang and Thinh M. Le, Senior Member, IEEE, “A New No-Reference Quality Metric for JPEG2000 Images,” J. Zhang and T. M. Le: A New No-Reference Quality Metric for JPEG2000 Images

5.        Zhou Wang, Member, IEEE, Alan C. Bovik, Fellow, IEEE Hamid R. Sheikh, Student Member, IEEE, and Eero P. Simoncelli, Senior Member, IEEE,” Image Quality Assessment: From Error Visibility to Structural Similarity”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 13, NO. 4, APRIL 2004.

6.        Niranjan D. Narvekar and Lina J. Karam, Senior Member, IEEE, ” A No-Reference Image Blur Metric Based on the Cumulative Probability of Blur Detection (CPBD)”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 20, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2011.
7.        Rony Ferzli and Lina J. Karam, Senior Member, IEEE, ” A No-Reference Objective Image Sharpness Metric Based on the Notion of Just Noticeable Blur (JNB)”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 18, NO. 4, APRIL 2009.
8.        Rania Hassen, Zhou Wang and Magdy Salama, “NO-REFERENCE IMAGE SHARPNESS ASSESSMENT BASED ON LOCAL PHASE COHERENCE MEASUREMENT”, IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ACOUSTICS,SPEECH AND SIGNAL PROCESSING (ICASSP10),Dallas,TX,MAR.2010.

9.        P. Le Callet and F. Autrusseau, “Subjective quality assessment IRCCYN/IVC database,”  2005 [online]. Available: http://www.irccyn.ecnantes.fr/ivcdb/

10.     “Final report from the Video Quality Expert Group on the validation of objective models of video quality assessment”, VQEG 2000.

 

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20.

Authors:

Garapati Sitnah Joe Sheeba, Vemu Samson Deva Kumar, M. Nalini Sri

Paper Title:

An Automated Timer System That Maintains Crew Details: Crew Timer System

Abstract: This paper highlights the development of an automatic software that maintain the crew details, crew schedules and priority of the crews in Indian Railways according to sections using an auto Timer System, that uses J2EE technology. It is also used to find the status of the crew and their working hours in the division using indicators. The software has five modules that are named as Loco info, Section points, LP Schedule and Priority, Remainder and Graph module, Loco Inspector Movement. The software helps in maintaining and retrieving the crew details. The auto timer system which is the heart of the software maintains the information about the number of working hours. If the number exceeds eight it automatically relieves the loco pilot of his duty by sending him an SMS. The number of working hours are extended depending upon the will of the loco pilot.

Keywords:
Crew, Loco Pilot, Section, Loco inspector, Crew Timer.


References:

1.        http://www.scr.indianrailways.gov.in
2.        http://www.freecsstemplates.org/

3.        Allan Monnox. Rapid J2EE Development, Pearson PTR  Publications, 2005, [HTML help file] Available: Teamlib.

4.        Basic Java Course Material. Ivytech Infosystems, Bangalore: Ivytech Infosystems, 2001. [E-book] Available: ivytech.co.in.

5.        Budi Kurniawan. Java for the Web with Servlets, JSP, and EJB: A Developer's Guide to J2EE Solutions, Indiana Polis: New Riders Publishing, 2002. [E-book] Available: Files Bay.

6.        Calvin Austin, Monica Pawlan. Advanced Programming for the Java 2 Platform. New Jersey: 1999. [E-book] Available: java.sun.com.

7.        Cliff wooton. Java Script Proggramers reference, Wrox publications, [E-book] Available: netLibrary e-book

8.        Ivan Bayross. SQL, PL/SQL Programming language for Oracle,second Ed. Reading, East Delhi.

9.        Software Engineering, A practitioner‘s Approach- Roger S. Pressman, (6th edition).  Mc.GrawHill  International Edition.

10.     Deepak Alur, John Crupi, Dan Malks.  Core J2EE Patterns; Best Practices and design strategies, (First Ed). Reading, New Jersey: Prentice Hall / Sun Microsystems Press, 2001. [E-book] Available: netLibrary e-book.

11.     Jerry Bradenbaugh. JavaScript Application Cookbook, San Jose: O’Reilly, 1999. [E-book] Available: netLibrary e-book.

 

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21.

Authors:

B. Jaswanthi, M. NaliniSri

Paper Title:

Confidentiality and Privacy in Cloud Computing using Hybrid Execution Method

Abstract: Today cloud computing has become ubiquitous and we see everybody lot of data being transferred and being accessed from the cloud. At the same time this phenomenon presents us with a great risk of data theft and privacy issues. Among these privacy is the main reason that many companies and also individuals to some extent are avoiding the cloud, which also needs be addressed. For this purpose we are proposing a new model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. This report analyses the challenges posed by cloud computing and the standardization work being done by various standards development organizations (SDOs) to mitigate privacy risks in the cloud, including the role of privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs).And a new execution model for confidentiality and privacy in cloud computing, called the Hybrid Execution model. This model provides a seamless way for an organization to utilize their own infrastructure for sensitive, private data and computation, while integrating public clouds for non-sensitive, public data and computation. We outline how to realize this model in one specific execution environment, Map Reduce over Big table.

Keywords:
Configurable computing resources, analyses the challenges posed by cloud computing and the standardization work.


References:
1.        A. Armando et al. Formal Analysis of SAML 2.0 Web Browser Single Sign-On: Breaking the SAML-based Single Sign-On for Google Apps. In  ACM FMSE, 2008.
2.        F. Chang et al. Big table: A Distributed Storage System for Structured Data. In USENIXOSDI,  2006.

3.        S. Chong et al. Secure Web Applications via Automatic Partitioning. In ACM SOSP,  2007.

4.        J. Dean and S. Ghemawat. Map Reduce: Simplified Data Processing on Large Clusters. In USENIXOSDI, 2004.

5.        P. Efstathopoulos et al. Labels and Event Processes in the Asbestos Operating System. In ACMSOSP, 2005.

6.        A. J. Feldman et al. SPORC: Group Collaboration using Untreated Cloud Resources. In USENIXOSDI, 2010.

7.        C. Gentry. Fully Homomorphism Encryption using ideal lattices. In ACM STOC, 2009.

8.        A.Haeberlenetal.  Accountable Virtual Machines. In USENIXOSDI, 2010.

9.        Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996(HIPAA), Public Law 104-191.

10.     P. Mahajan et al. Depot: Cloud Storage with Minimal Trust. In USENIX OSDI,2010.

11.     A.C. Myers and B. Liskov. A Decentralized Model for  information Flow Control. In  ACM SOSP, 1997.

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